Soybean is a major source of edible protein and oil. Oil content is a quantitative trait that is significantly determined by genetic and environmental factors. Over the past 30 years, a large volume of soybean genetic, genomic, and transcriptomic data have been accumulated. Nevertheless, integrative analyses of such data remain scarce, in spite of their importance for crop improvement. We hypothesized that the co-occurrence of genomic regions for oil-related traits in different studies may reveal more stable regions encompassing important genetic determinants of oil content and quality in soybean. We integrated publicly available data, obtained with distinct techniques, to discover and prioritize candidate genes involved in oil biosynthesis and regulation in soybean. We detected key fatty acid biosynthesis genes (e.g., BCCP2 and ACCase, FADs, KAS family proteins) and several transcription factors, which are likely regulators of oil biosynthesis. In addition, we identified new candidates for seed oil accumulation and quality, such as Glyma.03G213300 and Glyma.19G160700, which encode a translocator protein homolog and a histone acetyltransferase, respectively. Further, oil and protein genomic hotspots are strongly associated with breeding and not with domestication, suggesting that soybean domestication prioritized other traits. The genes identified here are promising targets for breeding programs and for the development of soybean lines with increased oil content and quality.
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